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The latter include epitaxy and optical lithography, mounting on heat sinks, beam forming with micro-optics and coupling to optical fibers, and reliability testing. Ever since their invention in , lasers have Laser and its Applications 1. Semiconductor lasers can also be used for this purpose. This comprehensive textbook provides a detailed introduction to the basic physics and engineering aspects of lasers, as well as to the design and operational principles of a wide range of optical systems and electro-optic devices.

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Key features include: Methods of design and fabrication of high-power diode lasers using proven semiconductor technologies are described in this book. Also included is information on the biological effects of laser beam interaction with tissue, with The fundamentals of semiconductor lasers in general and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers VCSELs in particular are explained in this chapter.

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Silfvast Published by Cambridge University Press, New York, March Lasers: Theory and Applications 2nd Edition will provide a coherent presentation of the basic physics behind the working of the laser along with some of their most important applications. It will also present the different types of lasers available today. Lasers and electro-optics is a field of research leading to constant breakthroughs. Government documents. Handbook of Lasers by Marvin J. Don't show me this again. Numerical examples are scattered throughout the bo " -- the book depository us London, United Kingdom images used in hospitals and in lasers that perform eye surgery.

Basics of lasers 2. Lasers are often described by the kind of lasing medium they use - solid state, gas, excimer, dye, or semiconductor. It's similar to moving from a dial-up Internet connection to broadband. Use form below to download this white paper. The basic concepts of laser were first given by an American scientist, Lasers Fundamentals - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation. The generation, transport, manipulation, detection, and use of light are at the heart of photonics. These 75kiloWatt lasers eliminate the need for active cooling. Churkin, Srikanth Sugavanam, Ilya D.

Within campus more than 15 training systems of the topics optics and laser fundamentals, laser metrology, fiber optics and telecommunications are presented by eLas. T1 - High-power semiconductor lasers. All of these laser types share a basic set of components. Fundamentals of Lasers A typical laser is comprised of three fundamental elements — Lasing medium Can be a solid, liquid or gas that emits radiation when excited Major factor that determines the wavelength of the laser system — Excitation mechanism The energy source used to excite the lasing medium — Typical excitation www.

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Podivilov, Sergey A. Coluzzi DJ 1. Introduction No other scientific discovery of the 20th century has been demonstrated with so many exciting applications as laser acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Ever since their invention in , lasers have assumed tremendous importance in the fields of science, engineering and technology because of their diverse uses in basic research and countless technological applications.

AU - Fallahi, Mahmoud. As external light is injected, the electrons within the atoms absorb the light and go from the lowest state of energy ground state to a state of high energy. The unique characteristics of ultrafast lasers, such as picosecond and femtosecond lasers, have opened up new avenues in materials processing that employ ultrashort pulse widths and extremely high peak intensities.

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Leading researchers in the field have published a number of high-quality books and review articles on laser fundamentals and applications. This course provides an introduction to the physics of lasers and some applications. Types of Lasers There are many types of lasers available for research, medical, industrial, and commercial uses.

At the same time, carrier populations as well as the coherent interband polarizations are accelerated by the field, as is evident from the gradient terms in Eqs. Therefore, intraband effects strongly modulate the polarization dynamics. As long as inter and intraband transitions are properly considered in the microscopic calculations, polarization and current sources together produce strongly enhanced emission intensity compared to an artificial case where only polarization dynamics is allowed and the gradient terms are omitted.

An intuitive picture is obtained if one considers the acceleration of real carriers in a conduction band, which are assumed to have been generated in a previous tunneling process. Subsequently, these electrons are accelerated in the conduction band and experience the anharmonic region of the bands for strong excitations. Due to this anharmonicity, the accelerated carriers emit radiation. Reference [ 83 ] therefore combines a semiclassical model of carrier acceleration in a conduction band with a dynamical tunneling process. However that approach neglects the influence of the carrier populations on the tunneling probability.

A detailed analysis of this tunneling process in Ref. Other approaches aim to generalize the recollision picture of atomic HHG 85 , 86 to solids. There it is described as a free particle where the moment of creation determines its trajectory. Within this model, only electrons created at the correct phase of the electric field can recombine and contribute to the emission.

References [ 63 , 65 ] interpret interband transitions in solids in terms of generalized recollisions between electrons and holes. In this picture, an electron is excited from the valence to the conduction band by the electric field and subsequently electrons and holes are accelerated in opposite directions inside their bands by the electric field. Upon a change of the electric field at a later time, both recombine under photon emission at nonzero crystal momentum.

In analogy to the atomic picture, only electrons and holes which have been created at a specific time can recombine. The band separation at time of the recombination then defines the frequency of the emission. While this approach has been justified in the atomic case, the generalization from the atomic case to solids is problematic because excitations in solids are spatially delocalized over a large area.

Quantum mechanics does, e. Furthermore the semiclassical analysis predicts electron trajectories crossing many unit cells in the periodic lattice, 89 unaffected of any scattering effects. While the semiclassical approach attempts to provide an intuitive explanation of the generation process of high harmonics, the oversimplified picture it promotes can never contain the full physical picture and may lead to confusion.

Furthermore, transitions between bands occur only around bandgap minima. In Ref. In this process, the system emits light with frequencies corresponding to integer multiples of the driving frequency. To observe this effect in semiconductors, one therefore needs strong THz sources. These observations have sparked great interest and triggered a whole series of subsequent experiments demonstrating HHG in a variety of semiconducting materials and dielectrics.

List of semiconductor materials - Wikipedia

In the experiments of Ref. In the experiments, HHG up to the 25th harmonic order has been detected. In this crystal direction, the inversion symmetry of the ZnO crystal is broken. A few configurations exist, where even harmonics can also be observed in atomic HHG studies. In these cases, a dynamical symmetry breaking by the exciting light field is employed to create the even harmonic orders. Also the possibility to control the harmonic spectrum by a DC electric field, which splits the harmonic resonances proportional to the applied field strength has been introduced.

It is found that the HHG efficiency is proportional to the square of the carrier density. Consequently, bulk crystals offer the possibility to achieve high conversion efficiency in HHG, due to their high density in comparison to atomic gases. In agreement with Ref. Based on this model, a theoretical study in Ref. Furthermore, the nonlinear character of HHG with respect to the driving field is confirmed. However, it is proposed 10 and demonstrated 76 that a finite Berry's phase in the directions with broken inversion symmetry, creates currents perpendicular to the incident light field, which indeed lead to the production of even harmonic orders.

Extending this model, by analyzing the subcycle transition dynamics between the valence and the conduction band, Ref. An effect which is not due to the acceleration of carriers in the anharmonic band but an intrinsic property of the interband polarization, i. These, subcycle transition dynamics can lead to constructive or destructive interference between currents created in different half cycles of the exciting laser field, dependent on the laser field strength and wavelength.

The spectrum exhibits several narrow resonances at spectral positions corresponding to even and odd multiples of the THz excitation frequency having a comparable intensity. The end of the plateau defines the cutoff energy, i. Remarkably, as HHG is a coherent process, the spectrum is phase stable with respect to the THz excitation. The results of a numerical calculation based on the SBE, Eqs. The experimental data as well as the microscopic calculations consistently show the presence of even harmonic orders. Obviously, the existence of even harmonics must result from broken inversion symmetry, even though GaSe appears to have geometrically inversion symmetric energy bands.

In this configuration, a transition from, e. The corresponding transition amplitude has an odd parity with respect to the exciting field E. This dependence on odd powers of the electric field is directly mapped to the polarization source explaining the odd harmonic orders. At the same time, a transition between h 1 and e 1 can also be realized via a third band h 2 as an intermediate step. Such indirect transition paths can only exist if a system has at least three mutually dipole connected states — a condition which can only be fulfilled in a system with broken inversion symmetry.

To analyze this intriguing possibility in more detail, Ref. At negative field crests, the emission is strongly suppressed. Both, experimental and theoretical emission bursts are not delayed with respect to the positive peaks of the driving field. This is in strong contrast to atomic HHG experiments and models, 85 , , , which show and predict a significantly delayed HHG emission. As explained above, direct transitions from one band to another feature a transition amplitude with an odd parity, while indirect transitions yield an even parity with respect to the electric field E.

As both transitions types connect the same bands and appear simultaneously, the total polarization is given by the sums of both transition amplitudes via. In case positive fields add up constructively, negative fields produce destructive interference. Consequently, the emission at positive half cycle is strongly enhanced, while it is strongly suppressed at negative half cycles due to electronic quantum interference.

This is a prerequisite for an efficient interference. Therefore, one must fully include polarization interplay with currents to systematically understand HHG in solids. As discussed in Sec. Therefore, not only are dynamical BO expected to occur once the excitations reach the boundaries of the BZ but these BO also contribute considerably to the HHG process. Compared to semiconductors, atomic gases have a intrinsic inversion symmetry, such that they emit only odd harmonic orders.

Despite this difference, Ref. The difference in both systems is attributed to the different nature of the atomic ground state, which is typically a localized state, and the extended energy bands in solids. Furthermore, the emission sources in atoms and solids are different. In a solid, a polarization and current source contribute to HHG. In atoms, however, electrons can be treated as free particles once they have been ionized. It is proportional to the maximum kinetic energy an electron can gain while being accelerated by the electric field.

In atomic HHG the cutoff scales quadraticly with the laser wavelength and field strength, 85 , while in solids a linear dependence is found in experiment and theory. They predict that in materials where this is not the case, the linear cutoff dependency is broken. Although, rare gas solids are bound by weak van der Waals interactions, in contrast to covalently bound semiconductors, this analysis demonstrates the important effect of a periodic potential on HHG in solids. This second plateau is in contrast to the measurements performed in the gas phase, which only show a single plateau.

The computations reproduce the appearance of a second plateau and demonstrate that the cutoff energy white dashed line is defined by the transition energy between states 1 and 3. Additional details and explanations of the theoretical model can be found in Ref. Reference [ 65 ] compares this picture to quantum mechanical calculations based on the SBE to study the role of dephasing times in HHG. As multiple recollisions of an electron and an hole, i.

Experiments by Refs. The authors in Ref. They consist of evenly spaced resonances corresponding to odd harmonic orders. In agreement with theoretical studies, 23 , the cutoff energy scales linear as function of field strength. In their simulations, only the intraband emission of the quantum mechanical model could reproduce the experiments, while the interband contribution and hence the total emission disagree with the experimental spectra as well as the cutoff dependence.

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The microscopic calculations have been performed on the basis of the SBE Eqs. The fundamental driving field alone excites an electron wave packet symmetrically for positive and negative field cycles, symbolized by the symmetric trajectories dashed lines. In an inversion symmetric crystal, such a symmetric excitation creates only odd order harmonics.

Adding a second harmonic perturbation at twice the frequency of the fundamental excitation, the total electric field is reduced for one half cycle, while it is slightly increased in the next half cycle. Consequently, the electron wave packet, is accelerated further away from the BZ center for one polarity of the driving field than for the other blue lines , effectively breaking the overall inversion symmetry. The interplay of both excitations, thus, creates even and odd harmonic orders. The measurements show the emission of strong odd harmonics and weaker even harmonic orders whose intensity is modulated by the delay between the two driving fields.

The phase of this modulation varies as function the observed harmonic order, as exemplary demonstrated by the red line, which connects delay times resulting in minimal even harmonic intensity. Therefore, the measured phase may be used to distinguish both contributions. In this connection, already a very weak second harmonic bias down to is sufficient to create a measurable even harmonic signal. A theoretical study in Ref. These results are in agreement with quantum mechanical simulations performed in Ref.

Above the bandgap, interband contributions dominate for mid IR drivers, while intraband contributions dominate in the far IR. Below the bandgap, the ratio of both contributions depends on the exact laser parameters. In Figure 13 it is shown a set of spectra taken at increasing times resolution is in the order of some nanoseconds of the luminescence in platelets of CdS [ 81 ]. This is quite illustrative of the evolution of fast irreversible processes, what is evidenced in the observation that, 1 the width of the band decreases in time, while 2 the slope of the spectra in the high frequency side increases, and 3 there is a shift in the position of the peak.

This is a result that as the nonequilibrium state of the system evolves in time, the concentration of electron-hole pairs decreases tending to return to the equilibrium value and the energy in excess of equilibrium is also returning — via relaxation processes to the lattice — to its value in equilibrium 82 , Daly It may be noticed that for the study of the ultrafast time evolving optical properties in the plasma in semiconductors it is necessary to derive in detail a response function theory and scattering theory for systems far from equilibrium.

Particularly, one needs to derive the frequency- and wave number-dependent dielectric function in arbitrary nonequilibrium conditions, because it is the quantity which contains all the information related to the optical properties of the system as known, it provides the absorption coefficient, the reflectivity coefficient, the Raman scattering cross section, etc.

We describe the application of the results to the study of a particular type of experiment, namely the time-resolved reflectivity changes in GaAs and other materials in Albrecht et al. In Figure 14 are reproduced time-resolved reflectivity spectra, and in the upper right inset is shown the part corresponding to the observed oscillation, as reported by Cho et al. Such phenomenon has been attributed to the generation of coherent lattice vibrations, and several theoretical approaches have been reported 87 - A clear description, on phenomenological bases, which captures the essential physics of the problem, is reported in Zeiger et al.

We briefly describe next the full use of NESEF for dealing with pump-probe experiments for studying the optical properties of semiconductors in nonequilibrium conditions. Let us consider a direct-gap polar semiconductor in a pump-probe experiment. We recall that the exciting intense laser pulse produces the so-called highly excited plasma in semiconductors HEPS see Figure 2 , namely, electron-hole pairs in the metallic side of Mott transition that is, they are itinerant carriers, and we recall that this requires concentrations of these photoinjected quasi-particles of order of 10 16 cm -3 and up , which compose a two-component Fermi fluid, moving in the lattice background.

Along the process the carrier density diminishes in recombination processes nanosecond time scale and through ambipolar diffusion out of the active volume of the sample ten-fold picosecond time scale. From the theoretical point of view, such measurement is to be analyzed in terms of the all important and inevitable use of correlation functions in response function theory 52 , 53 , The usual application in normal probe experiments performed on a system initially in equilibrium had a long history of success, and a practical and elegant treatment is based on the method of the double-time equilibrium thermodynamic Green functions 52 , In the present case of a pump-probe experiment we need to resort to a theory of such type but applied to a system whose macroscopic state is in nonequilibrium conditions and evolving in time as a result of the pumping dissipative processes that are developing while the sample is probed, that is, the response function theory for nonequilibrium systems, which needs be coupled to the kinetic theory that describes the evolution of the nonequilibrium state of the system 18 , 19 , 93 , We resort here to such theory for the study of the optical properties in HEPS, and, in particular, we consider the case of reflectivity.

We call the attention to the fact that the dielectric function depends on the frequency and the wavevector of the radiation involved, and t stands for the time when a measurement is performed. Once again we stress that this dependence on time is, of course, the result that the macroscopic state of the non-equilibrated plasma is evolving in time as the experiment is performed.

Therefore it is our task to calculate this dielectric function in the nonequilibrium state of the HEPS. First, we note that according to Maxwell equations in material media that is, Maxwell equations now averaged over the nonequilibrium statistical ensemble we have that. The latter can be calculated resorting to the response function theory for systems far from equilibrium the case is quite similar to the calculation of the time-resolved Raman scattering cross section 95 , and obtained in terms of the nonequilibrium-thermodynamic Green functions, as we proceed to describe.

Using the formalism described in Vasconcellos et al. But, the expression we obtain is, as already noticed, depending on the evolving nonequilibrium macroscopic state of the system, a fact embedded in the expressions for the time-dependent distribution functions of the carrier and phonon states. Therefore, they are to be derived within the kinetic theory in NESEF, and the first and fundamental step is the choice of the set of variables deemed appropriate for the description of the macroscopic state of the system.

The case of HEPS has already been discussed, and we simply recall that a first set of variables needs be the one composed of the carriers' density and energy, and the phonon population functions, together with the set of associated nonequilibrium thermodynamic variables that, as we have seen, can be interpreted as a reciprocal quasitemperature and quasi-chemical potentials of carriers, and reciprocal quasitemperatures of phonons, one for each mode.

But in the situation we are considering we need to add, on the basis of the information provided by the experiment, the amplitudes of the LO-lattice vibrations and the carrier charge density; the former because it is clearly present in the experimental data the oscillation in the reflectivity and the latter because of the LO-phonon-plasma coupling clearly present in Raman scattering experiments 95 - Consequently the chosen basic set of dynamical quantities is.

We indicate the corresponding macrovariables, that is, those which define the nonequilibrium thermodynamic space as. The volume of the active region of the sample where the laser beam is focused is taken equal to 1 for simplicity. Next step is to derive the equation of evolution for the basic variables that characterize the nonequilibrium macroscopic state of the system, and from them the evolution of the nonequilibrium thermodynamic variables.

This is done according to the NESEF generalized nonlinear quantum transport theory, but in the second-order approximation in relaxation theory. This is an approximation which retains only two-body collisions but with memory and vertex renormalization being neglected, consisting in the Markovian limit of the theory. It is sometimes referred to as the quasi-linear approximation in relaxation theory , a name we avoid because of the misleading word linear which refers to the lowest order in dissipation, however the equations are highly nonlinear. The NESEF auxiliary "instantaneously frozen" statistical operator is in the present case given, in terms of the variables of Equation 15 and nonequilibrium thermodynamic variables of Equation 20 , by.

Using the statistical operator of Equation 25 the Green functions that define the dielectric function [cf. Equation 10 can be calculated. This is an arduous task, and in the process it is necessary to evaluate the occupation functions. Finally, in Figure 16 , leaving only as an adjustable parameter the amplitude — which is fixed fitting the first maximum —, is shown the calculated modulation effect which is compared with the experimental result we have only placed the positions of maximum and minimum amplitude taken from the experimental data, which are indicated by the full squares.

For simplicity we have drawn only the positions of the maxima and minima of the figure in the inset of Figure 14 Vasconcellos The amplitude of the modulation is determined by the amplitude of the laser-radiation-driven carrier charge density which is coupled to the optical vibration, and then an open parameter in the theory to be fixed by the experimental observation.

This study has provided, as shown, a good illustration of the full use of the formalism of NESEF, with an application to a quite interesting experiment and where, we recall, the observed signal associated to the modulation is seven orders of magnitude smaller than the main signal on which is superimposed. As already noticed, nowadays advanced electronic and opto-electronic semiconductor devices work in far-from-equilibrium conditions, involving ultrafast relaxation processes in the pico- and femto-second scales and ultrashort nanometric scales constrained geometries.

We have presented here a detailed analysis of the physics involved in the evolution of ultrafast relaxation processes in polar semiconductors. This was done in the framework of the Non-Equilibrium Statistical Ensemble Formalism which allows for the proper description of the ultrafast evolution of the macroscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamic state of the system.

The theory was applied to the analysis of several experiments in the field of ultrafast laser spectroscopy. In a future article we shall present the use of NESEF for dealing with transport properties of polar semiconductors in the presence of moderate to high electric fields, and also the possibility of emergence of complex behavior. The role of nonequilibrium thermo-mechanical statistics in modern technologies and industrial processes: an overview. Brazilian Journal of Physics.

Hopkings J and Sibbet W. Ultrashort-pulse lasers: big payoffs in a flash. Scientific American. Alfano RR, editor. Biological events probed by ultrafast laser spectroscopy. New York: Academic Press; Semiconductors probed by ultrafast laser spectroscopy. Shank CV. Measurement of ultrafast phenomena in the femtosecond time domain. Luzzi R and Vasconcellos AR.

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Ultrafast transient response of nonequilibrium plasma in semiconductors. In: Alfano RR, editor. Semiconductor processes probed by ultrafast laser spectroscopy. New York: Academic; Luzzi R. Ultrafast relaxation processes in semiconductors. In: Pilkhun M, editor. High excitation and short pulse phenomena. Amsterdam: North Holland; Nonequilibrium plasma in photoexcited semiconductors. Recent developments in nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Berlin: Springer; Kinetics of hot elementary excitations in photoexcited polar semiconductors.

Physica Status Solidi. Urbach's tail in III-nitrides under an electric field. Journal of Applied Physics. Hot-phonon bottleneck in the photoinjected plasma in GaN. Applied Physics Letters. Kubo R. Opening address to Oji seminar on non-linear non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Progress of Theoretical Physics. Jaynes ET. A backward look to the future. In: Grandy WT, Jr. Physics and probability.

Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press; Predictive statistical physics. Frontiers of nonequilibrium statistical physics. New York: Plenum; Macroscopic prediction. In: Haken H, editor. Complex systems: operational approaches. Predictive statistical mechanics: a nonequilibrium statistical ensemble formalism.

Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic; The theory of irreversible processes: foundations of a non-equilibrium statistical ensemble formalism. Rivista del Nuovo Cimento. A kinetic theory for nonlinear quantum transport. Transport Theory and Statistical Physics. Velocity overshoot onset in nitride semiconductors. Electron mobility in nitride materials. Hole mobility in zincblende c—GaN.

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Ultrafast relaxation kinetics of photoinjected plasma in III-nitrides. Journal of Physics. D, Applied Physics. Nonlinear transport properties of III-nitrides in electric field. Rodrigues CG. Electron mobility in n-doped zinc sulphide. Microelectronics Journal. Nonlinear charge transport in III-N semiconductors: mobility, diffusion, and a generalized Einstein relation. Non-linear electron mobility in n-doped III-nitrides. Solid State Communications. Nonlinear hole transport and nonequilibrium thermodynamics in group III-nitrides under the influence of electric fields.

Transient transport in III-nitrides: interplay of momentum and energy relaxation times. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter. Evolution kinetics of nonequilibrium longitudinal-optical phonons generated by drifting electrons in III-nitrides: longitudinal-optical-phonon resonance. Drifting electron excitation of acoustic phonons: Cerenkov-like effect in n-GaN. Extended irreversible thermodynamics.

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Statistical foundations of irreversible thermodynamics. Stuttgart: Teubner-Bertelsmann-Springer; Irreversible thermodynamics in a nonequilibrium statistical ensemble formalism. Microscopic approach to irreversible thermodynamics. An example from semiconductor physics. Physical Review. Microscopic approach to irreversible thermodynamics IV: an example of generalized diffusion and wave equations. Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics. Equations of evolution nonlinear in the fluxes in informational statistical thermodynamics.

International Journal of Modern Physics B. Diffusion and mobility and generalized Einstein relation. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications.