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But in each of these situations, you still need to know some underlying SQL to generate certain queries. Using the low-level Database Driver modules is rather enticing. There is no overhead when generating a query for the database as we are manually writing the query. The overall dependencies our project relies upon is also minimized. However, generating dynamic queries can be very tedious, and in my opinion is the biggest drawback of using a simple Database Driver. Consider, for example, a web interface where a user can select criteria when they want to retrieve items. If there is only a single option that a user can input, such as color, our query might look like the following:.

This single query works nicely with the simple Database Driver. We now need to support a few different permutations of this query:. The Query Builder ends up being a pretty nice tool in these situations. This relationship is similar to how something like TypeScript translates to JavaScript. Using a Query Build is a fine solution as long as you fully understand the underlying SQL it is generating.

Never use it as a tool to hide from what is happening at a lower layer. If you ever find yourself questioning what a generated query actually looks like you can add a debug field to the Knex instantiation call. Doing so looks like this:. In fact, most of the libraries mentioned in this post include some sort of method for debugging the calls being executed. Thank you for reading and be sure to take this into consideration when you build your next project. Instead of guessing why errors happen, or asking users for screenshots and log dumps, LogRocket lets you replay the session to quickly understand what went wrong.

Try it for free. The level of abstraction ORM can offer is elementary when dealing with large projects. And it can be beneficial in smaller projects as well. ORM has been proven in use for many years and has simplified the maintenance of many projects. And that you can use ORM incorrectly is a truism, as with every kind of framework. I think what you advocating for in this blog post is more like an anti-pattern. Maybe the title is baity, but the content was good and completely fair to ORMs. I think some of the comments got hasty and did not actually read the post.

Thanks for succinctly pointing out some of the real dangers and common edges people brush up against when using ORMs. But very disappointed with explanation. You are NOT learning wrong. When you get some incorrect results, we always have to debug the sql log printed, so it is not correct. Believe me, you are totally wrong here. See this following code I had to write to get the products, along with the child tables data:.

It turned out to be very stable and low maintenance while ORM approaches are often a maintenance nightmare …. Talk whatever you like. You got great SEO ranking right there, so I feel like writing some comment here. ORM has its merit and appropriate use case. Nope, I am not gonna avoid using ORM. I use it for mainly save, load, and some transaction capability to simplify things.

They have differents building,we can see it all. Road is still a road, and book is still a book. More needs to be said? And ORMs are a pathetic attempt at abstracting out its complexities. Make sure you go out and vote today! Many of the kids had taken part in this ritual before.

Democracy Prep, which comprises 21 schools in five states, lives up to its name by placing democratic action at the heart of its identity. This past election cycle, the kids fanned out not just across Harlem , where the network was founded, but also in Las Vegas and Washington, D. Elementary school students lined the sidewalks of Camden, New Jersey, with handmade signs in English and Spanish. And a number of high school seniors headed to the polls themselves to cast their first votes.

High schoolers must complete 40 hours of community service and also lobby public officials, compose a brief about a politician or policy proposal, provide an oral presentation whether a public speech or testimony before a panel , submit an op-ed for publication and raise money for a cause. And every Democracy Prep senior must pass the U.

This approach appears to be bearing fruit. Last spring, the policy research organization Mathematica released an extraordinary study finding that Democracy Prep students were 12 percentage points more likely to vote and 16 points more likely to be registered to vote than their peers. Those results offer something of a first: proof that exposure to a particular educational model can dramatically increase rates of political action.

Public opinion polling suggests that our long era of political antagonism has bred a growing disillusionment with democracy, especially among young people. To David Campbell, a political scientist at Notre Dame who has written about civic education, those indicators are a chilling sign of the times. Yeah, this is a moment. Democracy Prep students visit the New York state legislature in Albany in Democracy Prep.

Two days after Election Day, Massachusetts Gov. The new law requires public schools to offer students the opportunity to participate in civics and community service projects beginning in eighth grade. Both were echoing sentiments percolating in the education world for several years. Whether out of embarrassment at those results or concern for the lacerating tenor of contemporary political discourse, enterprising leaders have responded in force. Scholars and philanthropies are brainstorming programs to help students spot and debunk the myriad sources of fake news.

And a slew of states between Washington and Florida have either considered or adopted measures to direct more resources to civics in schools, at both the K and postsecondary levels. Massachusetts is only the latest state to join a nationwide push to teach kids more about the U. But even with a growing movement to draw attention to the subject, the news is still clogged with more bad omens than good.

The latest, a Presidents Day poll of 41, adults conducted by the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, found that a majority of Americans in every state except Vermont would fail the U. Voting is a limited window into civic behavior. By the standards of other developed nations , voter participation in the United States has historically been quite low. After peaking in the decades following World War II, turnout steadily dwindled over the second half of the 20th century. Although it has regained some ground since then, roughly 60 percent of eligible voters have opted out of midterm elections since the passage of the 26th Amendment, which granted year-olds access to the ballot in Emmeline Zhao.

Widening the perspective does little to brighten the picture. Membership in political parties has dropped substantially over the past 15 years. Church attendance has faded. Americans spend less of their time volunteering than in previous generations. Those institutions brought neighbors together to address common challenges and collectively undertake the responsibilities of citizenship, from leading Girl Scout trips to picking up litter.

In their absence, Putnam found, an atomized polity lost its grip on public life. The center serves as a clearinghouse for research into how young people become activated as citizens and what can be done to bolster their rates of public participation. Another poll from the same year, this one conducted by the Public Religion Research Institute, found that Trump had a special appeal for Republicans who rarely or never participated in social groups like sports teams, book clubs or PTAs. He also attracted respondents who said the U. While a single swallow does not usher in the spring, GDP performance in followed past relationships.

In contrast, Malaysia Figure 8. Malaysia and Thailand continue to outperform the World index, with the Philippines doing slightly better. This implies that prevailing institutional transparency was weaker. In contrast, India and Vietnam, while starting from a low base, have outpaced their peers in terms of achieving improved economic and institutional transparency.

strategic and international studies

Figure 9. Indonesia and the Philippines are two countries that warrant a closer examination. From to decisive policies aimed at reforming their economies significantly improved their institutional transparency and economic liberalisation. As Figure 10 illustrates, growing technocratic influence in policy formulation contributed to creating a better business environment. Former President Fidel V. Ramos liberalised strategic sectors of the Philippine economy. While his achievements were well recognised, some critics pointed out that the momentum of his reforms was short-lived.

On closer examination, his critics may be proved wrong. This observation pointing to greater policy coherence is counter-intuitive.

Why you should study Human Performance Technology (HPT)

Popular perceptions view a shambolic political process bereft of any continuity as more fitting to describe Philippine politics. We propose an alternative perspective in the discussion that follows. Figure Philippine presidents and their legacies. In a nutshell: the Philippine Constitution, despite its outdated economic provisions, restored and strengthened democratic institutions that 14 years of martial law had laid to waste.

The Philippines was among the few countries operating under a market economy that restricted foreign ownership. In spite of expanding the list of exempt industries, where full foreign ownership is allowed, the perception of a restrictive business environment remained. In succession, Fidel V. Ramos restored the power supply, political stability and capital flows. Despite having been impeached and convicted for plunder, Joseph E. Estrada made two significant contributions: He broke away from the failed policies on import substitutions and he re-oriented polices to agriculture and regional development.

Recognising that regional growth is enhanced with strong linkages, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo inter-connected the island markets through nautical highways and promoted BPOs. These legacies resulted in subsequent sovereign credit rating upgrades. The current president Benigno S. Generally perceived as a laggard, negative news such as corruption, the worst international airport and an incompetent bureaucracy dominated the headlines about Philippine business.

While these factors contributed to four policy challenges identified in Figure 11, Business Freedom and Property Rights were improving, although they were still some way from achieving their peaks. Lost in the negative headlines were the progressive improvements in six areas of economic freedom, as highlighted in Figure For this reason, the strong economic performance observed since was actually building on the political stability restored by Fidel V.

Ramos and sustained by the legacies of succeeding presidents. Restrictive business and uncertain regulatory environments in the Philippines were cited as institutional weaknesses. To address these constraints, the government and global investors demonstrated pragmatism in confronting the challenges. A number of Spanish lawyers, often unfamiliar with Philippine or US jurisprudence which serves as the foundation for Philippine judicial practice , argued that their clients faced insurmountable risks. Investing as minority shareholders they would always be out-voted by their Philippine partners.

In short order, distrust sets in that unravels any carefully crafted agreements with a commercial rationale in mind. Legal issues need to be addressed to facilitate, rather than impede, the entrepreneurial aspirations of the partners. In order to confront this challenge, Philippine legislation allows segregating activities with foreign ownership limits from those that are unrestricted where full foreign ownership is permitted.

A Bad Time to Be Average

Such a legal compromise allows investors to reconcile their economic aspirations with foreign ownership restrictions. As a result, ventures are structured so that they are consistent with the just rewards criteria. That is, returns are appropriated as compensation for risk-taking. In effect, the government was expected to cushion any adverse returns by providing fixed subsidies.

Long read: A new generation of San Franciscans believes the drug makes them more creative

Hence, by virtually taking very limited risks, investors reaped all the returns, which were often generous. Such expectations were unrealistic given that returns were uniquely appropriated as a just reward for risk-taking. However, this flawed expectation persisted in certain circles, particularly among Spanish lawyers. Specifically, let us examine these realities:.

On a general note, managerial tolerance for political risks is a function of familiarity with the market and its dispute resolution mechanisms. On paper, Philippine legislation is supportive of a functioning market economy. Varying degrees of competencies make some Philippine government agencies more or less effective in supporting investments. The Philippines has demonstrated its ability to adhere to the rule of international law. To a large extent, the Philippines was justifiably criticised for its over-emphasis on legal compliance that verged on technicalities rather than on applying the substance of the law.

Hence, some foreign lawyers who were inexperienced in Philippine jurisprudence found it easy to blame the bureaucracy for their own inadequacies. Hence, the perception persisted that the Philippines remained a high-risk country among Spanish managers. The premises for Philippine corporate partnerships have changed over the years. Previously, capital, know-how and technology represented the contributions from foreign partners. As a result, uneven allocation of risks and returns planted ab initio the seeds for future discord. The emergence of financially strong Philippine companies was coupled with strengthened technological capabilities.

This changed the premises for foreign partnerships, where foreign capital diminished in importance. Increasingly, Philippine companies sought to complement their strengths with the technological inputs of foreign partners. Consequently, partnerships are now formed under an explicit understanding of what each party can contribute.

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This mutual understanding tends to sustain long-term commercial relationships. The ability to navigate the Philippine bureaucratic labyrinth represents a local capability that is often under-estimated. Ironically, bureaucratic bottlenecks are resolved when investors spent time to understand how companies can comply with the rules. In many instances, the bureaucracy welcomes suggestions from businesses given that it recognises its own limitations.

Approached on a collaborative basis, issues can be resolved more quickly while complying with Philippine and international laws. As a result, Filipino-controlled partnerships are not uncommon, even in sectors where foreign ownership restrictions do not apply. We posit that a geographical distance, b bureaucratic barriers and c cultural differences mask the underlying strategic miscalculations that managers make.

By combining technological capabilities with market access, the time to market in commercialising business opportunities is likely to be shortened. To achieve this, managers need to work together, committing time, resources and capital to build a viable market presence. This recognises the specific nature of capabilities and resources that make complementation feasible. In this context, pursuing ASEAN opportunities would require a strategic approach where commitments to build long-term relations are equally important to success as deploying the appropriate resources.

By adopting a complementation strategy, Spanish and Filipino managers would need to work together more closely. In building to complement their strengths, entry into ASEAN through the Philippines is viable through effective partnerships. Often, this becomes feasible when specific projects or opportunities are pursued.

Weak Philippine infrastructures offer opportunities for Spanish industrial companies. Philippine construction companies are experienced and skilled in civil works. However, they continue to rely on foreign expertise for structural engineering, design and advanced construction technologies.

Specific areas for action are a easing visa restrictions, b lifting import quotas and c streamlining product standards and procedures for access to markets. This may take the form of: a exchanges of legislative experiences; b legislative support from multi-disciplinary experts; or c consultations with business leaders. Expertise from Spain and the Philippines could be drawn to support these legislative initiatives. Public-private sector forums can complement the work of both governments.

Formed as working groups, appropriate policy areas can be identified for action in order to facilitate commercial opportunities. Weak Philippine bureaucracy offers opportunities for Spain and the Philippines to learn from each other. Executive education programmes are instrumental in upgrading managerial capabilities and in transmitting skills and know-how to empower managers to seize ASEAN opportunities.

The executive programmes offered by leading business schools are effective channels for future ASEAN leaders to better appreciate the Spanish and European business culture. A managerial reflection In the final analysis, Spanish and Filipino managers hold the key to reversing the sorry state of Spanish-Philippine commercial relations.


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Hence, when inaction turns to inertia because deep-seated erroneous beliefs go unchallenged, business is destined to commercial irrelevance. Hence, the next time around, when managers blame their commercial misfortunes on geography, bureaucrats and culture, they should think again. Perhaps, legitimate as the reasons may appear, the real causes are probably staring at them in the face!

Ricardo G. Bernardo M. Error: Javascript is disabled in this browser. This page requires Javascript. Modify your browser's settings to allow Javascript to execute. See your browser's documentation for specific instructions. Can Spain regain its commercial relevance, and how can it do it? Specifically, note the following contradictions: Geographical distance is an insurmountable barrier.

In contrast, Spanish managerial enthusiasm for Latin America is undiminished by sequestrations, expropriations and sovereign defaults. Cultural differences are pronounced and are compounded by differences in language and history.

Ironically, common colonial experiences with the Philippines are a blur to Spanish managers. We posit that these firm-specific factors are contributory: Opportunism replaced depth of strategic understanding to inform strategy. ASEAN economic and trade profile The Philippines led in economic growth, while lagging in attracting foreign direct investments.

Regulatory uncertainty is high given unpredictable changes in rules. Reframed as arising from business constraints, two sets of opportunities can be identified: Companies could shape future opportunities by offering solutions to resolve the constraints. Companies could take early positions, hence giving them options to benefit from the financial returns of future opportunities. The existence of a talent pool. Local talent is a source of competent managers and potential consumers. Market transparency and linkages.

Market connectedness facilitates access to AFTA markets that allow tariff-exempt commerce from Consider the following: The Intra-ASEAN trade shown in Figure 3 mimics the colonial trading links that connected the Philippines as the Spanish gateway to China, Japan and their neighbours as important trading partners.